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Sense of Normative Behavior and Bullying 2 (1995)

Source: Monograph vol.54 edited by Educational Research Center, Benesse Corporation
(Supervising Editor : Dr. Masashi Fukaya, professor, Tokyo Seitoku Junior College)

The survey covered a total of 2086 children in the sevenths to ninth grades attending public junior high schools in Tokyo, Saitama Prefecture and Kanagawa Prefecture from February to March 1996. Method: questionnaire through school

7th grader 8th grader 9th grader Total
Boy 328 390 368 1086
Girl 327 328 345 1000
Total 655 718 713 2086

1. Start of Delinquency
Students think that eating candy and chewing gum at school is the start of delinquent behavior. (Table 14)

2. Chronology of Delinquency
This report indicates that compared with data from 1989, a lower percentage believes that changing the length of the school uniform is delinquent behavior. (Table 16)

3. Deviant Behavior
Few students smoke or shoplift. They go no further than leaving textbooks at school or putting on lip cream. (Table 17)

4. Chronology of Deviant Behavior
This report indicates that compared with data from 1989, the percentage of those having experienced deviant behavior increased for almost all of the 17 questions in the study. For example, the percentage that go to game centers has more than doubled from 17.6% in 1989 to 39.3%. (Table 19)

5. Bad Behavior and Experience
Students do not engage in behavior that they believe is bad. In fact, students are apt to engage in certain behavior when they no longer feel that it is bad. For this reason, healthy ideas on normative behavior are important.

6. Chronology of Bad Behavior
This report indicates that compared with data from 1989, fewer students claim to feel that they have done something wrong when they drink alcohol, smoke, or have their hair permed. (Table 22

7. Feelings toward School Rules
With the exception of the rule that boys must have a crewcut and the rubber bands for girls' hair must be black, students follow most of the school rules, even if they think they are meaningless. (Table 26

8. Chronology of School Rules
This report indicates that compared with data from 1986, fewer students follow the rules that boys must have a crewcut and rubber bands for girls must be black. (Table 29)

9. Experience of Bullying
7.2% have bullied others severely (Table31) and 11.8% have been bullied severely. (Table 32)

10. Percentage of Bullying
In total, 10.1% of students have been bullied and 5.4% of students have bullied. (Table 34)

11. Bullying and Enjoying School
Students who are bullied do not enjoy school. (Table 35)

12. Bullying and Self-expression
Students who are bullied put their efforts into their studies, but those who bully feel they are expressing themselves in club activities and relationships with friends. (Table 36)

13. Bullying and Future Outlook
Students who bully harbor a bright outlook of the future. Students who are bullied also feel self-confident regarding their future jobs. (Table 38)

14. Bullying and Student Type
In general, students who bully are leaders of their group, give themselves high self-evaluations, and have dreams for the future. In comparison, those who are bullied are serious and hardworking, follow school rules, and are confident about their future occupation.

15. Delinquency and Bullying
Students who are bullied engage in delinquent activities, but those who bully repeatedly engage in delinquent activities. (Table 40)

16. Bad Behavior and Bullying
A large percentage of students who are bullied feel that smoking and drinking are wrong. Among students who bully, the percentage is lower. (Table 41)

- Summary -
This report indicates that compared with data from the 1980s, a normative sense of behavior and a feeling that rules must be obeyed has eroded among students. Students have a noticeably critical attitude toward school rules. Furthermore, students who are bullied are the timid type who have an understanding of school rules, but tend to engage in delinquent conduct. In comparison, students who bully are cheerful, give themselves high self-evaluations, and have ambitions for the future, but do not have a sense of normative behavior and rules and tend to repeat delinquent conduct. As such, it is important to foster a healthy understanding of normative behavior and rules in order to decrease bullying.


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