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Psychological Shutdown of Junior-High School Students

Source:Monograph vol.59 edited by Educational Research Center, Benesse Corporation
(Supervising Editor : Dr. Masashi Fukaya, professor, Shobi Junior College)

1. INTRODUCTION: Theme Background

"Normal" students are dangerous.
Recent public attention has focused on the psychological problems of junior-high school students. In Kobe, a junior-high school student killed and decapitated an elementary-school boy and placed his head in front of the school gate. Considering this to be an "abnormal" incident, many people have tended to avoid easy generalization. However, this incident provides several points of analysis from the view of psychopathology.
In other incidents, a junior-high school student stabbed his homeroom teacher with a knife, students attacked a policeman, and students broke into a supermarket. As such, it is difficult to conclude that these students who display aberrant behavior are different and that average, normal students would never engage in such behavior.
When school principals are asked about the students who have caused trouble, they often describe them as "normal" or "unassuming." Indeed, in the past, it was the delinquents who broke the rules. In recent cases, "normal, unassuming" students have been responsible for strange, unexpected behavior. This leads us to think that every student might be dangerous and creates a fear of junior-high school students. At such a time, we need to reconsider what is "normal." We believe that certain students are normal because we cannot understand what they are thinking, but if we could see into the hearts and minds of such students, we could understand their pain.
As a result, it is not possible to speak of "normal" students without doubting our definition. However, it is true that the boundary has become blurred between students who break the rules and cause trouble and those who do not. It is consequently difficult to deny that every student has the potential for delinquent behavior. Moreover, it appears that these cases are increasing and escalating from normal to abnormal. Although students seem composed, we cannot remain completely at ease. Many teachers and students are probably feeling such anxiety.

Days with no sign of relief
At regular meetings, more and more teachers report that they do not know what to do about the changes they see in their students. They report that more students do not follow instructions. Some students get annoyed when a teacher tries to give advice. Others are restless and unable to make decisions. These changes seem to be more apparent in students who are average than those who appear likely to cause trouble. This monograph attempts to shed light on these changes in junior-high school students.
"A Sense of Normative Behavior" and "Bullying" (Vol. 54) point out that students who would willingly engage in delinquent acts have lost a sense of normative behavior (standard of good and bad). Both students who bully and those who are bullied demonstrate an eroding awareness and understanding of these standards.
"The School Nurse's Office as a Refuge" (Vol. 55) focuses on students who cannot find a place to call their own at school. Such students do not feel comfortable in the classroom and seek refuge in the nurse's office. Many students fall into this category. "Human Relationships at School" (Vol. 57) clarifies that human relationships at school are limited to bonds within peers or a small group of classmates.
This data indicates that there is a psychological shutdown among so-called "normal" students. Their place at school is in the classroom, but friends in their own grade are limited and they do not get along with many of them so there is tension among classmates. Often they cannot understand their classes. Students are constantly being scolded by teachers so they find it difficult to respect them. They do not play an active role in extracurricular activities and are not happy with their clubs. In other words, they do not enjoy themselves at school.
After returning home, they have to go to cram schools. Although the atmosphere at cram schools is less stressful, it is far from relaxing. After cram school, they have a late dinner, take a bath, and talk with their parents until bedtime. They have little time of their own. If they want to relax, it is after midnight and they play video games or watch movies or videos in their own rooms. But, staying up late at night makes it that much harder to get up the next morning.
Junior-high school students make an effort to get good grades and try to make friendships that are trusting and intimate. They are interested in the opposite sex, but cannot approach them with confidence. They lack excitement and feel closed. They search for something to give them a fresh perspective. Sometimes they feel so offended and angry that they feel like exploding. No doubt, there are many students who feel such frustration. This report aims to appeal on the behalf of junior-high school students who display such a psychological shutdown.
* Note: These monographs have not yet been translated in English.

The survey covered a total of 1864 children in the sevenths to ninth grades attending public junior high schools in Tokyo, Chiba Prefecture, Saitama Prefecture and Kanagawa Prefecture from September to October 1997

7th grader 8th grader 9th grader Total
Boy 244 342 345 931
Girl 240 354 333 927
Total 484 696 678 1,858

  • General Outline of the Survey
  • (1) How the students feel when they wake up in the morning

    Truly refreshed ....................... 3.7%

    Lethargic for no reason ....................... 24.7%

    Find it difficult to wake up ....................... 19.5%

    (2) Appetite at breakfast

    Lack appetite (total of the figures below) ....................... 35.1%

    No appetite at all ....................... 7.9%

    Hardly have a appetite ....................... 27.2

    (3) How they feel when they leave for school
    The percentage decreases with each higher grade.

    Go to school gladly ....................... about 70.0%

    Look forward to the whole day (7th grade) ....................... 27.0%

    Look forward to the whole day (8th grade) ....................... 19.6%

    Look forward to the whole day (9th grade) ....................... 16.7%

    (4) Hours of study
    Only in the ninth grade does the percentage of students studying more than one hour rise to 47.3%.

    Study at home very little after school ....................... 31.9%

    Study for more than one hour ....................... 30.0%

    (5) Going to cram school
    60% of students go to cram school.
    Many of them go there 2 or 3 times a week and get home after 10 'clock at night.

    (6) Time to go to bed
    Many of students go to bed around 11:30. However, 24.1% of students stay up until even after 12:30. In each grade, students who stay up until midnight,

    7th grade ....................... 10.7%

    8th grade ....................... 20.6%

    9th grade ....................... 37.2%

    (7) Enjoying their classes

    Find their classes interesting ....................... 36.2%

    Find their classes boring ....................... 63.8%

    (8) Unpleasant experiences at school
    Many students expressed unpleasant experiences involving human relationships as follows

    Have trouble being accepted as a pal/friend ....................... 32.9%

    Having something that bothers them pointed out by others ....................... 48.6%

    (9) Friendships that cause anxiety
    Many students feel anxious about their relationship with friends.

    Think their friends talk about them behind their backs ....................... 40.1%
    Worried a friendship might break up ....................... 39.8%

    (10) On people around them
    They have many people around them to talk with. However, many students claim that there are only a few people who listen to their worries and feelings of frustration.

    (11) Physical and mental conditions
    Many students have complaints. In the higher grades, more students have complaints.

    Tire easily ....................... 59.6%

    Cannot concentrate on anything ....................... 55.5%

    (12) Feeling offended
    In reply to many of the questions, students replied that they "feel offended." They feel very offended in the following situations.

    When close, trusted friends reveal their secrets ....................... 60.4%

    When they are compared to another child and told to follow the example ....................... 59.9%

    (13) Idolizing conduct that is not permitted
    On the whole, most of them appear not to idolize such conduct.

    Wear pierced earrings ....................... 20.9%

    Dying their hair brown ....................... 20.8%

    (14) How to relieve stress
    Many students try to relieve stress through some form of amusement.

    Reading comics ....................... 29.1%

    Enjoying video games ....................... 27.1%

    Going out with friends ....................... 31.6%

    (15) Relationship of stress to daily life
    Students who feel less stressed feel good when they wake up, have an appetite, and go to school gladly, looking forward to the whole day.
    Those who feel stressed do not want to go to school but neither do they want to go home

    Students with high stress levels ....................... 20.9%

    Students with low stress levels ....................... 4.2%

    (16) Students who feel very stressed
    Compared with students feeling less stressed, those who feel very stressed cannot understand their classes, try to endure unpleasant situations as much as possible, and try not to stand out at school.

    Those who are stressed endure unpleasant situations as much as possible ....................... 94.0%

    Those who feel less stressed endure unpleasant situations as much as possible ....................... 9.6%

    (17) Personal relationships of very stressed students
    Over 20% have no one who will treat them kindly or praise them, listen to their worries or frustration and listen to them talk about their depression.

    (18) Stress in relation to the feeling of rebellion
    When very stressed students are compared with those who feel less stressed, very stressed students think their teachers are meddling when they are scolded or cautioned about their behavior. They also feel particularly offended and irritated by the remarks of adults.

    - Summary -
    Junior-high school students have such a busy schedule every day that they do get enough sleep and find it difficult to wake up in the morning. A considerable number are apt not to be interested in their classes and have trouble maintaining good friendships. In this state of psychological shutdown, they complain of feeling physically and mentally tired and cannot concentrate. They feel angry about many things. Fortunately, they do not engage in delinquent conduct and try get rid of their frustration through comic books and video games. What can they do when they get depressed or feel lonely? Since there are few places where they can feel free of such a state of mind, we need to consider ways in which junior-high school students can relax and enjoy life.


    1. Unpleasant Experiences
    The survey shows (Table 1 ) how students feel when cautioned about breaking rules and departing from good conduct. When they are reminded to turn in their homework or to be on time for school, over 60% thought they should be careful to not to repeat their behavior. In contrast, there are many students who show no qualms about talking to classmates or quarreling during class. The following shows students' reactions to being scolded by teachers according to whether they feel they should change their behavior and be more careful next time. Although the percentage differs according to questions, seventh graders tended to show a willingness to be more careful the next time. This tendency decreased among eighth and ninth graders. The percentage of students who felt they should be more careful the next time was as follows (Table 2).

    Seventh graders ....................... 53.5%

    Eighth graders ....................... 42.4%

    Ninth graders ....................... 44.5%
    Besides their classes, students show difficulty adjusting in other aspects of their lives. We attempted to gauge their level of discomfort (Table 3). We asked students 10 questions to discern what sort of experiences they found to be unpleasant. Including "sometimes," 8 out of 10 responses show that students have had unpleasant experiences. These add up just under 30%. However, this percentage rises in two areas: 32.9% experience "have trouble being accepted as a pal/friend" and 48.6% do not like "having something that bothers them pointed out by others."
    Although trouble with friendships cannot be said to be serious, 6.3% have experienced "bullying by a classmate" and 10.5% have had "friends ignore them for no reason." The percentage is highest for students who struggle psychologically with their friendships such having trouble being accepted as a pal/friend. By grade, seventh graders were worried the most (Table 4).

    2. Relationship with friends
    In such problems as not wanting to attend school or bullying, the underlying issue seems to be relationships with friends. While background factors seem to vary, junior-high school students all seem to worry about their relationships with friends. By asking various questions, we tried to find out what they were worried about (Table 5). Overall, there did not appear to be any serious rifts in their friendships, but 27.9% replied that "they pretended not to notice even when their friends were bullied" and 19.2% felt that they could not follow their friends' conversation." However, approximately 40% experienced problems of trust among their friends. For example, 40.1% "think their friends talk about them behind their backs" and 39.8% said they were "worried a friendship might break up."
    Their concerns differ according to grade and gender (Table 6).
    [By grades]
    Highest among 7th graders = Try to do the same thing as everyone in the class
    Highest among 9th graders = During class, pretend not to know the answer when everyone else in the class does not know
    [By gender]
    Highest among boys = Pretend not to notice, even though friends are being bullied
    Highest among girls = Concerned about whether even her best girl friend might be talking about her behind her back
    Then, we asked them how many friends they had who would "listen to them when they were depressed" or "listened to their worries or feelings of frustration" (Table 7). The results show that 68.5% have "many friends to talk to." 54.9% answered that they had "over 5 to 6 friends who would share in their joy when they are happy." However, only 35.0% said they had "over 5 to 6 friends who would listen to their worries or feelings of frustration," and 16.4% had "no one." 11.8% answered they had "one person only." 28.2% had "no one" or "only one person" to listen to them in times of trouble, and boys thought so more than girls (Table 8).
    This data shows that students at school do not find their lessons interesting, and it is hard for them to find friends who will listen to them or talk about their problems. For this reason, not many students appear to be content at school.


    1. Physical and mental maladjustment
    As mentioned above, students not only have a very hectic daily schedule, but they do not receive any satisfaction from school. We prepared 23 questions to ascertain the physical and mental condition of students (Table 9). In view of their youth, junior-high school students should enjoy good health. However, a majority of students report complaints, particularly the following.

    Always + Often = sub total
    Tire easily 28.8% + 30.8% = 59.6%
    Cannot concentrate 20.2% + 35.3% = 55.5%
    In a daze 19.2% + 30.8% = 50.0%
    Stiff, aching shoulders 21.0% + 26.0% = 47.0%
    The number of students who have health complaints increases in the higher grades as shown below (Table 10).

    7th grade
    8th grade
    9th grade
    Tire easily 27.3% < 29.1% < 29.7%
    Cannot concentrate 15.4% < 20.7% < 23.0%
    In a daze 17.2% < 18.0% < 21.9%
    Stiff, aching shoulders 18.2% < 21.0% < 23.0%
    (percentage of students who answer "always")
    With the high-school entrance examination near at hand, ninth graders are concerned about their grades. As a result, they cut back on their sleep to have more time to study or they experience trouble sleeping.
    As for personality type, a high percentage, 38.3%, agreed with "I am concerned about my grades" followed by 32.1% who stated "I do not want to be disliked by anyone" (Table 11). This demonstrates their concern about grades and friendships. This tendency is pervasive irrespective of grade or gender (Table 12).
    As for future prospects, over 40% of students gave noncommittal answers to every question (Table 13). For junior high school students, "I do not know yet what my future will be like" seems to be their genuine feeling. Nevertheless, their replies to "I can build a happy family life and home" seem to indicate confidence.
    Table 14 shows the results of the survey according to age and gender.

    2. Feeling irritation
    As one characteristic of junior-high school students, they are often said to "feel irritated." We asked them in what situations they feel this way.
    In response to many questions, students answered that they felt irritated. A high percentage answered that they felt irritated in the following 3 instances (Table 15).
    When their close, trusted friends reveal secrets ............... 60.4%
    When adults compare them to another child and tell them to follow the example ............... 58.9%
    When adults tell them to wait until after the entrance examination to do what they want to do ............... 45.3%

    Based on the following, junior high school students are very offended and angry in just about every situation.
    When I cannot forget unpleasant things ............... 35.8%
    When I cannot change my mood ............... 43.0%

    As shown in Table 16, the study confirms these phenomena irrespective of age or gender. Somehow students have been forced into a psychological shutdown from which they cannot escape by seeking an outlet for their frustration.
    Are these students going to engage in conduct that is not permitted? Only 20% answered in "Yes, I really want to do it" for conduct that junior-high school students tend to idolize, such as "wear pierced earrings" (20.9%) and "dye my hair brown" (20.8%). The percentages only increase to 30 to 40% when the number of students who answered "Yes, I want to do it quite a bit" is added (Table 17). This indicates that even in a state of psychological shutdown, they do not have a strong urge to idolize conduct that is not permitted. There was no difference by grade for this tendency (Table 18).
    How do student find relief from stress without engaging in impermissible conduct when they are obviously in a state of psychological shutdown? The 4 main ways to cope with stress are as follows (Table 19).

    Quite often
    1st Going out with friends 31.6% + 26.5% = 58.1%
    2st Reading comics, etc. 29.1% + 27.1% = 56.2%
    3st 3rd Playing video games 27.1% + 17.4% = 44.5%
    4st Watching videos 26.4% + 21.9% = 48.3%
    If the top-ranking "Going out with friends" is excluded, student amuse themselves and find diversion through comics, video games, and videos. Students tend to stay in their own rooms alone to cope with emotional emptiness and feelings of gloom. The survey shows that ninth graders, unlike seventh graders, do not engage in "reading comics" or "playing video games" (Table 20). Does this indicate that ninth graders do not even have the leisure time to enjoy such moments?


    1. Stress and daily life
    As is the case with adults, stress builds up without our knowing it. In this survey, we established an index to measure the stress level of students by symptoms and have analyzed the results. We have noted three stages in their physical and mental conditions.
    1st phase: stage in which they obey warnings

    2nd phase: stage in which they feel rebellious

    3nd phase: stage in which they feel total exhaustion
    In the first and second phases, symptoms such as tension, anxiety, irritation, sleeplessness, and neurosis are observed. In the third phase, melancholia, asthenia, lack of perseverance and concentration, and loss of vigor, etc., are also observed. To understand the stress level of each student, we selected 5 symptoms which are often brought to attention of the nurse at the nurse's office.
    * Get diarrhea often (nervousness)
    * Irritable
    * Cannot concentrate on anything
    * In a daze (lack of concentration)
    * Unable to sleep deeply (disorder in sleep patterns)
    After the points ascribed to each answer were added up, the top 20% were designated as "high stress group" and the bottom 20% as the "low stress group." The remainder between the top 20% and the bottom 20% was designated the "mid-level stress group" to enable us to check the level of student stress.
    We sought to consider the relationship of stress in each stress level to grades and gender. 22.9% were in the high stress group and 23.7% were in the low stress group. By gender, boys indicated less stress than girls. By grade, seventh graders felt less stress than ninth graders (Table 21).
    We compared the high stress group and low stress group in terms of participation in extracurricular activities (Table 22).
    When very stressed students are compared with those who feel less stressed, we found the former quit club activities more than the latter group. The percentage of students who quit club activities was as follows.
    High stress group ....................... 13.6%
    Low stress group ....................... 9.5%
    However, the percentage of students who belong to non-sports clubs is almost the same for the high stress group (22.8%) as for the low stress group (22.6%).
    More students in the low stress group belong to clubs involving sports than students in the high stress group.
    The percentage of students who belong to sports clubs
    High stress group ....................... 62.9%
    Low stress group ....................... 66.9%
    The two groups displayed a big difference in their eagerness to participate in sports clubs.
    Students who eagerly participate in sports clubs
    High stress group ....................... 37.0%
    Low stress group ....................... 52.3%
    Next, we studied the relationship of stress to daily life. We researched how students behaved in the morning (Table 23). More students in the low stress group wake up earlier by themselves than those with high stress. There is a big difference in the percentage of students who find it difficult to wake up: 27.3% in the low stress group and 68.6% in the high stress group. This gap is apparent in replies to other questions.

    High stress group Low stress group
    Have breakfast every morning 61.4% 83.3%
    Have a good appetite at breakfast 51.8% 80.9%
    Look forward to the whole day
    when you leave for school
    11.1% 35.5%
    We see that a greater percentage of students with low stress wake up readily with an appetite and look forward to going to school than students with high stress.
    As for their attitude toward classes, more students with low stress feel "a sense of fulfillment," "feel encouraged to study," "find their classes interesting," and "don't feel under pressure" than students with high stress ( Table 24).
    On how students feel after they leave school, they were asked to choose one of three replies: "Want to stay at school longer," "Want to get home soon," and "Do not want to stay at school or go home." More students with low stress reported that they wanted to stay at school longer (Table 25).
    While only 4.2% of the students with low stress replied they "do not want to stay at school or go home," 20.9% of the students with high stress did so. This indicates that students with high stress cannot find solace at home or at school.
    Next, we looked at how students they spend their time at home after school (Table 26).

    Students with low stress spent more time studying that students with high stress.
    Low stress group ................................. 60.6 min.
    High stress group ................................. 38.9 min.

    On the contrary, students in the high stress group spent more time watching television than students in the low stress group.
    Low stress group ............................ 125.5 min.
    High stress group ............................ 141.6 min.

    The time spent for their own enjoyment was about the same.
    Low stress group ......................... 98.7 min.
    High stress group ......................... 97.0 min.

    However, students with high stress went to the cram school slightly more often.
    Low stress group ......................... 1.69 times/week.
    High stress group. ......................... 1.82 times/week.

    Students with high stress went to bed later.
    Low stress group ........................... 11:19p.m.
    High stress group ........................... 11:46p.m.

    Students with high stress slept 30 minutes less than students with low stress.
    Low stress group ......................... 426.5 min.
    High stress group ......................... 396.4 min.

    2. Students with higher stress levels
    What kind of life do students have when they feel a high level of stress? We focused on various aspects and relationships. First, we looked at the relationship to studying (Table 27).
    We added the percentage of students who reported they answered "understand everything" and "about 70%."
    Subject High stress Low stress
    Japanese 44.0% 59.3%
    Math 40.3% 61.0%
    English 34.0% 50.5%
    In each subject, compared with students with low stress, more students with high stress reported they could not understand their classes.
    Next, we looked at how they evaluated themselves (Table 28). The chart shows the personality type with the average reached by adding the percentage of "very much like that" and "somewhat like that." There was a big difference between both groups of students when asked questions related to stress. Stress is considered to occur when one cannot say no, and the percentage of students who "endure unpleasant situations as much as possible" is very high at 94.0% among students with high stress compared with 9.6% among students with low stress. This is a gap of over 80%.
    Among students with high stress, 87% claimed to be "concerned about their grades" compared with 25.5% of the students with low stress. Stress can result when students try to follow rules strictly, but find it difficult to actually do so. 86.5% of students with high stress reported feeling this way compared with 3.7% of the students with low stress. Stress is felt by students who do not express themselves and who conform with other people around them. 39.4% of students with high stress responded "I do not want to be disliked by anybody" against 3.7% of students with low stress. 33.0% of students with high stress responded "I care about how others look at me" against 1.2% of students with low stress. There is a large difference between the two groups. On all occasions, the average percentage was higher for students with high stress. In particular, the difference between the two groups exceeded 80% for the following three responses.
    I put up with unpleasant things as best as I can. (Difference of 84.4%)

    I have little confidence in myself. (Difference of 86.3%)

    I try to follow the rules strictly. (Difference of 82.8%)
    Depending on the stress level, self-evaluation showed a big difference as well, let us take a look at the gap between student self-evaluations and reality.
    More students with high stress have little confidence in themselves and find it important to conform with the people around them. What is the actual situation for them?
    In Table 29, the average was reached by adding the percentages answering "very much like that" and "somewhat like that." When the following questions were asked, the percentage was higher on each item for students with high stress.
    "If my opinion is different from my friend, I often follow my friend's opinion."
    "During class, I pretend not to know the answer when everyone else in the class does not know."
    "I try not to stand out in class."
    How about the personal relationships with friends (Table 30)? We considered the types of behavior that can cause stress.
    "Having something that bothers me pointed out by others."

    "Friends excluded me from their group for no reason ."

    "Friends ignore me for no reason."
    In response to all 6 questions, students with higher stress replied "often" and "sometimes." The group with high stress tries not to stand out and conforms with classmates, but in reality, they also tend to feel left out by their friends or bullied.
    Table 31 shows the relationship between how one relates to others and stress. When one is bullied or excluded, it is a comfort to have someone who listens to problems and cherishes you as a person.
    This chart shows the number of students who answered "no one." 4.4% of students with high stress answered that they have no one with whom they can talk while 1.7% of the students with low stress gave the same answer, indicating that there was not a large difference between the two groups of students. However, in response to all seven questions in the survey, more students with high stress replied "no one" than those with low stress. In contrast to students with low stress, more than 20% of students with high stress reported that there was no one in the following 4 categories.
    "Someone who treats me kindly" ...................... (25.9%)
    "Someone who praises me" ...................... (24.1%)
    "Someone who listens to my worries and discontented feelings" ...................... (21.2%)
    "Someone who listens to me talk when I am depressed" ...................... (20.4%)
    Among students with high stress, 20% feel that there is no one to understood them or support them psychologically.
    Finally, we considered the relationship between stress and rebellion. Table 32 shows how students feel when cautioned by a teacher about breaking rules. The number to the left of the slash indicates the percentage of students who think they should be careful next time. The figure to the right of slash shows the percentage of students who think teachers are meddling when they caution students. When the two groups are compared, in all categories, students with high stress did not think they should be careful, and instead feel teachers are a nuisance. Students with high stress, in particular, feel the teachers are a nuisance when they are cautioned about their behavior such as "not wearing shoes properly when they change shoes in school" (30.2%) and "bringing unnecessary items (items not required for class and school) (27.9%). These two groups showed little variation in the following situations. When cautioned about "quarreling with friends," both low-stress and high-stress groups feel their teachers are meddling. When they are scolded for "not bringing the attendance slip for a PTA meeting and submitting homework," both groups felt they should be careful the next time.
    Consequently, students with high stress want to follow the rules strictly but when teachers caution them, instead of thinking about being careful next time, they feel their teachers are meddling. In Table 31, students with high stress report that no one will listen to them when they talk about their problems or treat them kindly. These students see teachers as not so much as counselors or allies whom they can trust but as authority figures. Table 33 shows the relationship between stress and the feeling of being offended and irritated. We listed situations in which more than 50% of students answered that "I feel very offended." The following situations are listed in order of response. Generally, students with high stress were very offended when they were cautioned about the top 3 items.
    When adults compared me to another child and told me to follow the example ....................... 70.4%
    When adults told me to wait until after the entrance examination to do what I want ....................... 60.0%
    When adults cautioned me on only my weaknesses ....................... 59.7%
    When I had endured so much that I could not even change my mood ....................... 59.6%
    When I could not forget something unpleasant ....................... 51.2%
    Of students with low stress, only one item had a response of over 50%, with 51.2% feeling very offended "When adults compared me to another child and told me to follow the example."
    Recently it has been pointed out that ""normal" or "unassuming" children who are usually very quiet suddenly lose all reason and engage in strange and unexpected behavior. This survey shows that students with high stress report that they are bullied and excluded by friends, even though they are careful not to stand out and try to suppress themselves. They feel cornered because they feel they have no one with whom to talk or no one who will treat them kindly while they put up with unpleasant situations as best they can. These pent up feelings may cause these students to rebel against adults and teachers when cautioned and make them feel offended and angry. Every phenomenon has multiple causes and should not be interpreted simply as due to stress. However, by researching students with high stress, we have been able to recognize some of the reasons why so called "normal and unassuming" students suddenly lose all reason and engage in strange and unexpected behavior.
    "Sutoresu Shindan Handobukku (Handbook on Healing Stress)" C/B Medical Science International W/B Tomonobu

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