International Symposium 1998 TOP
Learning to Learn




  • GNP and per capita income divide Asia - Pacific Region into Developed Asia and Developing Asia.

Table 1
Per Capita Income of Developed Asia
country Per capita
Japan 38,750
Singapore 22,520
Hong Kong 21,558
Australia 17,500
New Zealand 14,950
Taiwan 11,236
South Korea 8,550

Table 2
Per Capita Income of Developing Asia
Source : Asiaweek 1995
Country Per Capita
Afghanistan 150
Nepal 180
Cambodia 215
India 310
Laos 325
Mongolia 335

  • The number of telecommunication companies and their expenditure are indicative of the region's move towards the multimedia superhighway.

Table 3
Number of Telecommunication Operators in South East Asia
sources: Business Times, April 95
Country No. of Operators
Brunei D. S 1
Indonesia 4
Malaysia 9
Philippines 9
Thailand 2
Singapore 1
Vietnam 1

Table 4
Planned Capital Expenditure for Telecommunications
sources: Business Times, April 95
Country Expenditure
(USD Billion)
Malaysia 16.2
Philippines 13.0
Thailand 9.0
Indonesia 8.5
Vietnam 7.0
Singapore 3.8
China 120.0
Japan 112.5
South Korea 15.0
Australia 15.0
India 14.0
Taiwan 13.0
Pakistan 11.0
Hong Kong 2.3
Sri Lanka 1.8
New Zealand 1.1

  • Out of 53 countries in Asia, 20 are already having or planning to have their own national satellites.

  • Asia is expected to account for 40 percent of the world's GNP within the next 25 years. By 2040 half of gIobal output will be made in Asia.

  • Asia Pacific Television Households have been growing steadily from 380 million in 1990 to 430 million in 1995.

  • Currently Cable and Television Penetration of TV households is around 82 million or 19 percent. It is estimated that this figure will reach 33 percent by 2000 and 47 percent by 2005.

  • 28 percent of TV households own a VCR with the highest in Australia and lowest in India.

  • Addressable TV households in Asia are 115 million. This is estimated to increase to 171 million by 2005. 34 million homes will be reached by modem fibre-optic cable system by 2000.

  • Demand seems to justify investment in interactive TV services in Japan, Hong Kong, Australia, Korea and Taiwan in the next 5 years or so. Over the next 10 years, Thailand, Malaysia and the Philippines would have a good potential. China, India and Indonesia do not look good for development of interactive services at least over the next 10 years.


  • Computer was most preferred and writing least preferred.
    Writing is perceived as the most difficult and teachers lectures as the least difficult. (Hiroo Saga)

  • Teachers' instruction are important in broadcast education. Children who received instruction before viewing, developed rapidly in knowledge. Those who received instructions afterwards improved in application. Among the children without any instruction, some were rated very low for lack of confidence although they did show understanding. (Sachiko Imaizumi Kodaira)

  • Teachers and students adapted to computers in classroom in stages.

    • Entry Stage: Expecting the computers would make their job easier, they tend to become frustrated.
    • Adoption Stage: Teachers become more confident and begin to use computers to support traditional teaching practices.
    • Adaptation Stage: Integrate technology into their teaching. Students become more productive moving through the curriculum more quickly.
    • Appropriation Stage: Begin to devise ways that technology could help them do new things.
    • Invention Stage: Students learn to conceptualise, plan and conduct long term projects and to assess and monitor their progress towards goals. Benefits include expansion of cIassroom; improvement in learning; greater self-direction (Lance Tachino).

  • An adult's attitude towards computer learning influences how a child will approach the computers. An adult who shows enthusiasm reinforce a child's excitement. (Anita Choy)

  • Heart of learning is teachers interaction with students:

    • fear that dynamic teacher-student interaction will be replaced by a computer screen
    • one more piece in an aIready full curriculum.
    • will curriculum be made to serve technology or will technology be used to serve curriculum?

  • In the field of technology, learning never stops.

  • Multimedia allows students to move away from a uniform education for everyone to assert individual identity, liberalize education and management.

Projects in Asia Pacific

  • Multimedia teaching introduced to Singapore schools on a pilot basis in 1994. Provide all primary schools with at least one computer laboratory by 1997.

  • Ngee Ann Polytechnic providing training for schools to use multimedia.

  • Plans to bring multimedia technology to secondary schools and junior colleges. A budget of $200,000 in 1995 to invest in media technologies.

  • Teachers creating their own multimedia training kits.

  • Interactive Multimedia Association of Malaysia

  • Propagate better understanding and utilization of technologies.

  • Helps train manpower and skills

  • Multimedia Super-Corridor- carve out of 15 km by 40 km area incorporating Kuala Lumpur City Centre.

  • Set up a multi-media university for Training and Research & Development.

  • The Philippines Children's Television Foundation

  • Batibot: Locally produced muppets animated by local artiste using Philippine language of Tagalog. Audience of 460,000 pre-school children. Positive attitude towards learning and knowledge of natural environment. Veer children away from commercialism or "I want" attitude.

  • India Educational Television Scheme
    Provided TV sets to schools. Children liked those programmes which were

    • clear and direct
    • simple in their messages
    • pleasant rather than unpleasant
    • amusing rather than serious

  • Eliminate lectures. Have more of the followings:

    • Animals
    • Cartoon
    • Children
    • Music and dance

    Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology Centre for Animation and Interactive Media is currently working on a number of projects:

  • "Multimedia Educational Content for Early Learners"
    Gives an overview of the principles for the construction of interactive multimedia for early educational use (3-10 years). Main aim of the project is to breakdown phobias associated with computer learning and show the positive and negative aspects of production.

  • Entertainment Multimedia Applications
    To examine best selling entertaining and educational (Edutainment) multimedia application and derive practical guidelines describing the application and the success of these application.

  • Using Multimedia to teach interpersonal skilIs to young children
    Test different approaches to character design, story telling, use of sound and music, design aesthetics, instructional design etc, study children's reactions to determine if interactive multimedia might be used to teach interpersonal skills.

  • KinEkids
    Issues in providing access to an audio / visual / motion picture / multimedia library to children aged 6-12.

    • Can Interactive Multimedia stimulate children's imagination to the extent that it advances their cognitive and learning abilities?

    A services of interactive games and puzzles will be developed as a self teaching resource to facilitate alternative methods of perception in children.

Copyright (c) 1998, Anura Goonasekera, all rights reserved.
Permission to reprint on Child Research Net